Born: September 5, 1940, Riga, Latvia
- Molecular pharmacology, neuropharmacology, neurochemistry
- Neuropeptides, neuroprotectants, cognition enhancers
Brief Description of Main Research:
Present studies: Pharmacological and Neurochemical studies on novel
neuroprotectants and cognition enhancers; search for their cellular targets and
The early 90th : Immunopeptide thymopentin as a novel neuroregulatory peptide
The 80th: Peptide and protein fragments and their linear and cyclic analogues
The 70th: peptides (angiotensin, bradykinin, thyroliberin), their
1974-1990: Supervisor of screening programmes on new drug studies at the
Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis (angiotensinamide, midantane, acetylcysteine,
desaminooxytocin. pentagastrin, dihypramine, cerebrocrast etc.)
The 60th: Studies on new N-cholinergic compounds, myorelaxant Dioxonium.
Languages: Latvian, English, Russian
- Riga Medical Institute (Faculty of General Medicine), 1964
- Postgraduate studies (pharmacology), Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis, 1964-1967
- PhD, Dr.med. (Candidate of Science in former USSR; Ph.D. in Western countries), Tartu
University, Estonia, 1968
- Dr.habil.med. (Doctor of Science in former USSR), Institute of Pharmacology, Moscow,
- Post doctoral studies/advanced courses:
- Peptide neurochemistry, Stockholm University, Sweden, 1992
- Memory pharmacology, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry,
Czechoslovakian Academy of Science, Prague, 1990
- Stress pharmacology, Institute for Drug Research, Germany Academy of
Sciences, Berlin, 1984
- Vasoactive peptide pharmacology, Institute of Physiology, Bulgarian Academy
of Sciences, Sofia, 1978
- Psychopharmacology, Laboratory of Pharmacology, Latvian Institute of
- Professor, University of Latvia, Faculty of Medicine,
Head Department of Pharmacology, 1998; Head Department of Pharmacology
- Professor, Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis
(IOS), 1993 -
- Head, Laboratory of Peptide Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, IOS, 1978-1987
- Head, Laboratory of Pharmacology, IOS, 1987- 1998
- Senior Research Associate, IOS, 1974-1978
- Junior Research Associate, (IOS), 1968-1974
- Full Member, Latvian Academy of Sciences, 1992
- Corresponding Member, Latvian Academy of Sciences, 1992
- Active Member, Academia Scientiarum et Artium Europaea (Salzburg, Austria),
- Active Member, New York Academy of Sciences, 1995
- 2008: Solomon Hiller Award (Latvian Academy of Sciences, Latvian Institute of Organic
Synthesis, Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Centre, JSC "Grindex",
- 2001: The Latvian Academy of Sciences and the JSC "Grindex" Prize, Golden Owl
- 1998: Oswald Schmiedeberg Medal (Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia)
- 1998: David H.Grindel Medal (JSC "Grindex" , Riga, Latvia)
- 1997: Solomon Hiller Medal (Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis, Riga, Latvia)
- 1996: Silver Medal, 20th Century Award for Achievement, International Biographical
Centre, Cambridge, England
- 1981: USSR State Prize: Research in Peptide and Protein Bioregulatory Substances
- 1969, 1970, 1977, 1984: The Latvian Academy of Sciences Presidium Prizes
Professional Activities and Memberships:
1) Latvian Academy of Sciences (LAS), and Latvian Council of
- Chair and Member, Scientist's Ethics Committee at the LAS and LCS, 1998 -
- Member of Senate, LAS, 1996-
- Deputy Chair, Division of Chemical, Biological and Medical Sciences, LAS, 1996 -
- Chair, Ethics Committee for Laboratory Animal Use, Latvian
Council of Science,1994 - 2004
2) University of Latvia (LU):
- Chair, Advisory Board in Medicine, 2009 -
- Member, Court of Arbitration, 2009 -
- Chair, Examination Commission for masters and bachelours at the Pharmacy Study
Programme, Faculty of Medicine, 2005 -
- Chair, Council of Professorship, Faculty of Medicine, 2001-
- Member of Dome, Faculty of Medicine , l998 - 2006
- Member, Council of the PhD fellowship studies, Faculty of Medicine, 2000 -
- Member, Council of Promotion in medicine, pharmacy and biology, 1998 -
- Chair, Examination Commission, for master and bachelor degree in pharmacy
- Member of Scientific Council, 1994 - 1999
- Member, Councilof the Study Programme for the Degree of Physician, Faculty of Medicine,
3) Other Scientific Organisations:
- Member of the National Judging Committees of the Baltic Assembly Prizes for Literature,
the Arts and Science, 2004-
- Member of the National Judging Committee of the LOREAL Baltic stipendium
Women in Science ( UNESCO Latvian National Committee and Latvian Academy of
Sciences), 2004 -
- Member, Scientific Programme, UNESCO/Latvian Academy of Sciences, Latvian National
Committee, 2002 -
- Member of the Central Medical Ethics Committee (at the Cabinet of Ministers, Latvia),
- President (1993-2002), Vice-President(2002 - ), Balt-LASA (Baltic Laboratory
Animal Science Association)
- Board member, FELASA (Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations),
1993 - 2002
- Governing Board member, ICLAS (International Council for Laboratory Animal Science),
1995 - 2003
- Member of the FELASA Working Group on Category B, 1998 - 2001
- President, Latvian Society of Pharmacology , 1994 -
- Member, European Neuropeptide Club, 1993 -
- Expert, Latvian Council of Science Expert Committee for Medical Sciences, 1991-
- Member, Scientific Council of Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis, 1978 - 2000
- Member, Grindels Fraternity, 2000 -
- Member, National Geographic, 2002 - 2008
4) Partipication in Organizing/Advisory Committees:
- Member of Advisory Committee, ENCP Conference, Tallin, Estonia, April 23-25, 2009
- Member of Organizing Committee, 6th Congress of Latvian Physicians, Riga, Latvia, June
- Chair, 35th Anniversary of the Latvian Society of Pharmacology, Riga, Latvia, April 27,
- Member of Scientific Committee, 3rd Congress of Russian Pharmacologists, St.Petersburg,
Russia, Sept 23-27, 2007
- Member of International Organizing Committee, East-European Symposium"Central and
Peripheral Neurotransmission", Varna, Bulgaria, Oct 5-9, 2005
- Chair, International Conference "Pharmacology in Latvia: Stepping into the 21st
Century", Riga, March 12-13, 2004
- Member of Advisory Board, IUBMB (Vancouver, Canada), 2003
- Member, Epharnet (EU), 2000 - 2002
- Chair of the Annual Balt-LASA Conferences, 1994 - 2003
- Member of Advisory Board, EPHAR Congress (Budapest, 1999)
- Member, FELASA/ICLAS Committee for Courses in Animal Science for researchers of the
East-European countries: Category C ( Budapest, Hungary,1998; Jurmala, Latvia, 1999 -
local organiser), Category B (Riga, Latvia, 2002)
- Chair, International Conference "Trends in Neuroprotecrtive Drugs: Design,
Pharmacology, Clinics", Riga, May 29-June 1, 1997
- Member of Programme Committee, FELASA 6th Conference, Basel, 1996
- Member of Programme Committee, Rudolph Buccheim Conference (Tallinn, 1995)
- Chair, 1st National Course Cat.C, Basic Laboratory Animal Science, Riga, 1994
- Member, International Courses in Animal Science (1994, 1997 - Tartu, Estonia, 1996, 1999
- Trakai, Lithuania)
- Official Delegate in the IUPHAR, 1994 -
5) Editorial Boards:
- Advances in Neuroimmunology (Pergamon Press), 1991-1996
- Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, Part B, 1991 -
- Acta Medica Baltica, 1992- 1999
- Baltic Journal for Laboratory Animals, 1993 - 2003
- 1998 - : Pharmacology, and Pharmacology and
pharmacotherapeutics, for students, Faculty of Medicine, University of Latvia (LU)
- 1998 : Cell Biology, for
students, Faculty of Medicine, LU
- 1995 - : Cell Signalling Pathways, for
mastership students, Department of Organic Synthesis and Biotechnology, Riga Technical
- 1995- : Molecular Pharmacology, for mastership students,
Faculty of Biology, LU
- 1995-1999: Biochemistry of Membranes and Hormones, for mastership
students, Department of Organic Chemistry, LU
- 2000-2001: Bioethics, for mastership students, Faculty of Biology, LU
- 1996 : Neurochemistry,
Advanced course in Psychotherapy, for psychiatrists and psychotherapeuts, Latvian Academy
- 1996: Novel
Drug Design and Pharmacotherapeutic Strategies, Advanced course in Pharmacy, for
- 1995 : Molecular
Pharmacology, Advanced course, for lecturers of theoretical medicine
- 1994 : Basic Laboratory
Animal Science, the 1st National course for young scientists
- 1980-1995: Experimental Pharmacology, for students, Faculty
of Biology, LU
- 1975-1976: Peptidergic System, for students, Daugavpils Pedagogic
Since 1978 - Research Advisor for
doctor's theses (15), mastership and bachelor theses (~ 50)
Publications: more than 250; monographs 3; conference abstracts
>500; patents 9; popular articles ~ 50; collections of papers 3.
Co-author (V.Klusa, M.Kule, E.Silins, J.Priedkalns, A.Silins, J.Stradins). Scientist's
Code of Ethics, 1998, Riga: Latvian Academy of Sciences, Latvian
Council of Sciences, 15 pp.
Recent/Representative Publications (selected from 2000
- Vija Klusa, Sergejs Isajevs, Darja Svirina, Jolanta Pupure, Ulrika Beitnere,
Juris Rumaks, Simons Svirskis, Baiba Jansone, Zane Dzirkale, Ruta Muceniece, Ivars
Kalvinsh, Harry V. Vinters. Neuroprotective Properties of Mildronate, a Small Molecule, in
a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease. - Int.J.Mol.Sci., 2010, 11, 4465-4487; doi:
- Jolanta Pupure, Sergejs Isajevs, Juris Rumaks, Simons Svirskis, Ivars Kalvinsh,
Vija Klusa. Neuroprotective properties of mildronate, a mitochondria-targeted
small molecule. - Neurosci.Lett., 2010, 470, 100-105.
- Jelizaveta Sokolovska, Juris Rumaks,Nina Karajeva, Dace Grinvalde, Jelena Sharipova, Vija
Klusa, Ivars Kalvinsh, and Nikolajs Sjakste. Influence of mildronate on some
characteristics of glucose and lipid metabolism, and pheriperal neuropathy in rat
streptozocin-induced diabetes model. - Biochemistry (Moscow), Supplement
series B: Biomedical Chemistry, 2010; V. 4 (in press).
- J.Pupure, S.Isajevs, I.Kalvinsh, V.Klusa. Effects of mildronate in indinavir- and
efavirenz-induced toxicity in mice. - Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci., Sect. B, 2010,
Vol. 64, N 3/4 (668/669), pp. 20-25.
- J.Pupure, J.Rumaks, S.Isajevs, O.Korzakova, J.Puncule, S.Svirskis, I.Kalvinsh, V.Klusa.
Mildronate's protective effects in peripheral nervous system: stavudine-induced neuropathy
and formalin-induced inflammation. - Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci., Sect. B, 2010,
Vol. 64, N 3/4 (668/669), pp. 26-30.
- Jansone B, Rumaks J, DzirkaleZ, Pupure J, Svirskis S, Muceniece R, Klusa V.
Gamma1- and gamma2-melanocyte stimulating hormones induce central anxiogenic effects
and potentiate ethanol withdrawal responses in the elevated plus-maze test in mice. -
Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav., 2009 Apr; 92 (2), pp. 267-271.
- Pupure J, Isajevs S, Gordjushina V, Taivans I, Rumaks J, Svirskis S, Kratovska A,
Dzirkale Z, Pilipenko J, Duburs G, Klusa V. Distinct influence of atypical
1,4-dihydropyridine compounds in azidothymidine-induced neuro- and cardiotoxicity in
mice ex vivo. - Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2008 Nov, 103 (5), pp. 401-406.
- Muceniece R, Saleniece K, Rumaks J, Krigere L, Dzirkale Z, Mezhapuke R, Zharkova O, Klusa
V. Betulin binds to gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors and exerts anticonvulsant
action in mice. - Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav., 2008 Oct; 90 (4), pp. 712-716.
- Muceniece R, Saleniece K, Krigere L, Rumaks J, Dzirkale Z, Mezhapuke R, Kviesis J, Mekss
P, Klusa V, Sciöth HB, Dambrova M. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) juice exerts
an anticolvulsant effect in mice through binding to GABA receptors. - Planta Med.,
2008 Apr; 74 (5), pp. 491-496.
- Pupure J, Fernandes MA, Santos MS, Moreno AJ, Kalvinsh I, Klusa V, Oliveira
CR. Mitochondria as the targetfor mildronate's protective effects in
azidothymidine(AZT)-induced toxicity of isolated rat liver mitochondria. - Cell
Biochem.Funct., 2008 Sep-Oct: 26 (5), pp. 620-631.
- Sundberg BE, Wååg E, Jacobsson JA, Stephansson O, Rumaks J, Svirskis S, Alsiö J,
Roman E, Ebendal T, Klusa V, Fredriksson R. The evolutionary history and
tissue maping of amino acid transporters belonging to solute carrier families SLC32,
SLC36, and SLC38. - J. Mol. Neurosci., 2008 Jun; 35 (2), pp. 179-193.
- Klimaviciusa L, Safiulina D, Kaasik A, Klusa V, Zharkovsky A. The effects
of glutamate receptor antagonists on cerebral granule cell survival and development. - Neurotoxicology,
2008 Jan; 29 (1), pp. 101-108.
- Klusa V, Klimaviciusa L, Duburs G, Poikans J, Zharkovsky A.
Anti-neurotoxic effects of tauropyrone, taurine analogue. - Adv.Exp. Med. Biol.,
2006, N 583, pp. 499-508.
- Klusa V, Pupure J, Isajevs S, Rumaks J, Gordjushina V, Kratovska A, Taivans I,
Svirskis S, Viksna L, Kalvinsh I. Protection of azidothymidine-induced
cardiopathology in mice by mildronate, a mitochondria-targeted drug.- Basic Clin.
Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2006 Oct; 99 (4), pp. 323-328.
- Zvejniece L, Muceniece R, Krigere L, Dambrova M, Klusa VZ. The differential
influences of melanocortins on nociception in the formalin and tail flick tests. - Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav.,
2006 Oct; 85 (2), pp.287-291.
- Vaitkuviene A, Ulinskaite A, Meskys R, Duburs G, Klusa V, Liutkevicius E.
Study of the interaction of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives with glucocorticoid hormone
receptors from the rat liver. - Pharmacol Rep., 2006 Jul-Aug; 58 (4), pp.
- Klimaviciusa L, Klusa V, Duburs G, Kaasik A, Kal;da A, Zharkovsky A. Distinct
effects of atypical 1,4-dihydropyridines on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced toxicity. -
Cell Biochem. Funct., 2007 Jan-Feb; 25(1), pp.15-21.
- Krauze A, Vitolina R, Garaliene V, Sile L, Klusa V, Duburs G.
3,4-trans-4-Aryl-3-(1-pyridinio)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-6-thiolates -- new group of
potential cardiotonic drugs. - Eur.J.Med.Chem., 2005 Nov; 40 (11), pp. 1163-1167.
- Jansone B, Bergstrom L, Svirskis S, Lindblom J, Klusa V, Wikberg JES. Opposite
effects of g1- and g2-MSH on regulation of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system in rats. -
Neurosci. Lett., 2004, 361(1-3), pp. 68-71.
- Klusa V, Jansone B, Svirskis S, Rumaks J, Meceniece R. The fundamental role of
melanocortins in brain processes. In: Chemical Probes in Biology (Ed.M.
Schneider) KLUWER Academic Publishers, 2003, pp. 255-267.
- Klegeris A, Liutkevicius E, Mikalauskiene G, Duburs G, McGeer PL, Klusa V.
Anti-inflammatory effects of cerebrocrast in a model of rat paw edema and on
mononuclear THP-1 cells. - European J. Pharmacology, 2002 Apr; 441 (3),
- Klusa V, Germane S, Nöldner M, Chatterjee SS. Hypericum extract and hyperforin:
memory-enchancing properties in rodents. - Pharmacopsychiatry, 2001 Jul: Supl 1: S61-9.
- Lindblom J, Opmane B, Mutulis F, Mutule I, Petrovska R, Klusa V, Bergström L,
Wikberg JE. The MC4 receptor mediates alpha -MSH induced release of nucleus
accumbens dopamine. - Neuroreport, 2001 Jul; 12 (10), pp. 2155-2158.
- Klusa V, Germane S, Svirskis S, Wikberg JE. The g2-MSH peptide mediates central
analgesic effect via aGABA-ergic mechanism that is independent from activation of
melanocortin receptors. - Neuropeptides, 2001Feb; 35 (1), pp. 50-57.
- Nevalainen T, Dontas I, Forslid A, Howard BR, Klusa V, Kasermann HP, Melloni E,
Nebendahl K, Stafleu FR, Vergara P, Verstegen J. FELASA recommendations for the
education and training of persons carrying out animal experiments (Category B). Report of
the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations Working Group on
Education of Persons Carrying out Animal Experiments (Category B) accepted by the FELASA
Board of Management. - Lab. Anim., 2000 Jul; 34 (3), pp.229-235.
Projects (Head of Projects) financed by the Latvian
Council of Science (LCS) , and University of Latvia (LU):
2009 - : LCS grant Nr 09.1025 (LU Nr. Z-6173-840).
Regenerative Effects of Mitochondria-targeted Small Molecules in Neurodegeneration
2009 : LU project LU-2009/ZP-94.
Neuroglial Cells as Targets for Neuroprotective Drugs.
2005-2008: LCS grant Nr 05.1418 (LU Nr 836) New Strategies in the Prevention of Anti-HIV
Therapy-induced Neuro- and Myopathies Induced by anti-HIV Therapy.
2007-2008: LU research grant Nr 2007/ZP-28. Mitochondria-targeted Pharmacotherapeutic
Effectivity in Multiple Sclerosis Model.
2006 : LU research grant.
Stress-induced Disturbances in Neurochemical Processes and Possibilities of THeir
Protection/Reversion: Mitochondria as Targets.
2001-2004: LCS grant Nr 01.0037 (LU Nr 459). Melanocortins as Regulators of Drug
Dependence-induced Alterations in Behavioural and Neurochemical Processes.
2004-2005: LU research grants 2004/LU3 and 2005/7-LU. Studies on Melanocortinergic
Signalling Mechanisms of Drug Dependence-inducing Substances.
1997-2000: LCS grant Nr 96.698. Amino Acid-containing Peptidomimetics: Studies on Their
Neurotrophic and Antineurotoxic Mechanisms.
1994-1996: LCS grant Nr 93.439. Novel Type of Cognition Stimulants: Behavioural and
1991-1993: LCS grant Nr 90.428. Studies on Nerve and Myocardial Cell Functioning in
Hypoxia, Aging and Other Aversive States, and Search for Endogenous and Exogenous
- 2005-2009: EU COST D34 project. Molecular Targeting and Drug Design in
Neurological and Bacterial Diseases. (Subcontractor)
- 2004-2007: EU COST D29 project. Design for Sustainable and/or Green Biologically
Important Agents. (Subcontractor)
- 2003-2004: EU Project MedNatNet . Subcontractor )
- 2001-2003: EU COST 13 project. Novel Peptidomimetic Type Substances with Neuroprotective
- 2000-2002: Project No 1874. Scientific and Technical Cooperation between the University
of Latvia and University of Uppsala. (Head)
- 1995-2000: Howard Hughes Medical Institute(USA) grant HHMI N75195-542601.
Pharmacological Sudies on Melanocortin Receptor Subtypes(Head)
- 1995-1997: EU COPERNICUS grant. Investigation and Elaboration of novel Chiral Drugs for
Biotechnological Procedures. (Subcontractor)
- 1994-1996: KIRT (Research collaboration between Karolinska Institute and Baltic
countries) projects: (1994) -Peptide-mimicking Substances: Role of the "free"
and "crypto" Amino Acids in Memory Improving Activity.); (1995, 1996) -
Neuroactive Amino Acid Containing Peptidoimetics: Focus on the Neurotransmitter
- 1993-1995: EU PECO grant. Pathology of the Nervous System in HIV Infection.
- 1979-1989: Multilateral programmes (between socialistic countries) INTERMOZG and
INTERVISCERA (Head of projects at the Institute of Organic Synthesis, Latvian SSR Academy
- 2008: Agreement Nr 2008/2467 between LU and JSC OlainFarm.
Neuromidin Studies in Diabetic Neuropathy Model.
- 2007: Agreement Nr 2362 between LU and JSC Grindex. Assesment of
the Therapeutic/protective Activity of Mildronate in Different anti-HIV Drug-induced
Cardio-, Neuro-, and Hepatotoxicity Models.
- 2007: Agreement Nr 2376 between LU and JSC Grindex. Studies on the
Neuroprotective Activity of novel Cerebrocrast Analogues in vivo.
- 2007: Agreement Nr 2377 between LU and JSC Grindex.
Assessment of Mildronate's Therapeutic Effectivity in Stavudine-induced Peripheral
Neuropathy Model in Rats.
- 2006: Agreement with Latvian Institute of Organi Synthsis in collaboration
with JSC Grindex. Protective effects of Mildronate in Anti-HIV Therapy-induced
Cardio- and Neuropathies.
The most important lectures/guest lectures:
- Lecture "" Meldonium: neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative disease
models", JSC "Olainfarm" Conference, Riga, December 11, 2010
- Plenary lecture: Forsight in the 21st century medicine science. The 6th Congress of
Latvian Physicians, Riga, Latvia, June 19, 2009
- Plenary lecture: Neurodegenerative diseases and neuroprotection: looking to the future. The
5th Baltic Congress of Neurology, Riga, Latvia, June 1-3, 2006
- Neuroprotective effects of tauropyrone: in vitro data. The 1st WG meeting of COST
D34/005/05 "Targeting of taurine and its analogues to protect against oxidative
stress", Dublin, Ireland , December 2-4, 2005 .
- Pharmacological modelling to search for actions and targets of novel compounds. Meeting
of WG COST 2, Prague, Czech Republic, March 18-19, 2005
- Neuroprotective Action of Novel Peptidomimetic Substances: Targets and Mechanisms.
Final Meeting of Working Group COST 13, Louvain-la Neuve, Belgium, September 24-27,
- Bioethics Commitees and Bioethics Education in Latvia. University of Turku, ,
Turku, Finland, November 11-12, 2004.
- Melanocortins and their role in cell signaling processes. University of Ljubljana,
Slovenia, April 11, 2003.
- Role of melanocortins in CNS function regulations. University of Helsinki,
Department of Cognitive Research, Finland, 2002
- Bioethics committees and education in bioethics in Latvia. Norway & Baltic
countries Conference "Ethics in Research", Sigulda, Latvia, September 5-7,
- Melanocortins and their roles in cell signalling processes. 200th Anniversary
Conference of the department of Pharmacology, University of Tartu, Estonia, October
- Ethics un science: necessary training for researchers. EC Conference "Ethics in
Research and Science. Situation and perspectives in the Candidate Countries to the EU,
Bratislava, Slovak Republic, March 17-19, 2002.
- Neurodegeneration and Neuroprotective Drugs. Academic lecture at the receiving of
D.H. Grindel Medal , Joint Stock Company GRINDEX, Riga, Latvia,
- Pharmacology of amino acid-containing peptidomimetic substances. Institute of
Molecular Pharmacology, Berlin, Germany, 1997
- Amino Acid Containing Dihydropyridines: Design and Pharmacology. Karolinska
Institute, Dept. Neurobiology, Stockholm, Sweden, 1996
- Thymopentin: a Neuroregulatory Peptide. University of Kuopio, Finland, 1993
- Peptidergic Pathways in Neuroimmunoregulation. Stockholm University,
Dept.Neurochemistry, May 1992; Invited lecture, KABI, Stockholm,
- Neuroregulatory Properties of Thymopentin. Invited lecture. Dr.Willmar Schwabe
Arzneimittel, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1992
- Novel pathways in neuroimmunological regulations. Immunobiological
Research Institute, Anandale, New Jersey, USA, 1991
Widow, son Andris, grand-children Linda and Karlis. Hobbies: music,
Last update 18-01-2011 09:15:45